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Single Page Application (SPA) E2E Testing with Cypress



Single-page applications (SPAs) are becoming more and more popular in the dynamic and ever-changing world of web development.

However, SPAs must go through a lot of testing because they are complicated for them to function as intended. JavaScript frameworks like React, Angular, and Vue.js are frequently used to create these applications. End-to-end (E2E) testing tools like Cypress are the best tools for this.

This blog describes the significance of Automation testing and  E2E testing for SPA and describes how Cypress makes the process simpler while assuring the greatest level of quality and dependability for online applications.

Single page application (SPA): An Understanding

Before delving into the specifics of E2E testing, let’s define SPAs in-depth and examine their significance. An online program or website known as a single page application (SPA) starts with a single HTML page and dynamically modifies that page’s content in response to user input.

As opposed to conventional multi-page websites, which require the user to refresh the entire page after each action, SPA offers a slicker, more responsive user experience. SPAs typically use JavaScript frameworks to control routing, manage state, and dynamically display content. Although this tactic enhances user experience, it complicates the system as a whole. Dropped connections, erroneous data rendering, and improper user interactions may go unnoticed until they have an adverse effect on end users and can harm the standing and user happiness of your product.

E2E test: Necessities

To make sure that SPAs function as intended, developers need efficient testing techniques. The complete user experience is not sufficiently covered by unit and integration tests, despite its importance. In this case, end-to-end (E2E) testing is helpful. E2E testing mimics actual user contact with applications like Verify your actions, such as clicking a button or completing a form, produce the outcomes you anticipated. This enables you to identify and address problems that could have gone unnoticed during earlier testing phases.

The following are a few of the main advantages of E2E testing for SPAs:

  1. Realistic test: E2E testing simulates actual user behavior and offers you a better idea of how your SPA would perform in a real-world setting.
  2. Full coverage: To make sure everything is operating as intended, E2E testing examines every component of the application stack, from the front end to the back end.
  3. Early detection of problems: Early issue detection (E2E) testing finds problems before they are used in production, lowering the troubleshooting cost.
  4. Improved user experience: A better and more delightful user experience is made possible by E2E testing, which finds and fixes problems before customers even see them.

 SPA : Challenges

Because of their dynamic nature and strong reliance on JavaScript, testing SPAs poses unique issues.

Let’s examine some of these problems and how E2E testing can be of assistance.

  1. Asynchronous operations: SPAs frequently make asynchronous requests in order to retrieve data or modify the user interface. These processes may cause test execution to be delayed. Cypress handles this by automatically waiting for elements to emerge, ensuring correct test execution.
  2. Complex user interaction: In SPAs, complex user interactions may include drag-and-drop, multi-step forms, real-time updates, etc. Cypress offers interaction simulation tools that let you thoroughly assess user interactions.
  3. Using client-side routing with SPAs: SPAs can load numerous views without refreshing the entire page by using client-side routing. Cypress offers route navigation commands so that you can carefully assess the navigation flow of your application.
  4. Test user authentication: A lot of SPAs need it. Cypress offers authentication flow handling solutions with tests that may validate security perimeters and user-specific functionality.

 Introduction of Cypress

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Now that we have identified the issues, let’s look at how Cypress, a pioneer in E2E testing, is resolving them. Cypress is a potent testing framework for modern web applications that is user-friendly for developers.

  1. Simple setup: Cypress’s setup procedure is straightforward, enabling developers to begin writing tests immediately. It is easily available to a wide range of developers thanks to its easy integration with well-known JavaScript build tools and frameworks.
  2. Real-time debugging: Real-time debugging is a special functionality offered by Cypress. Real-time test execution tracking allows developers to keep track of every step and status of their application at all times. This is highly beneficial for locating and resolving issues.
  3. Quick execution: Cypress operates inside your browser, providing you with quick access to your applications. Compared to alternative E2E testing solutions, this leads to quicker test execution and higher developer productivity.
  4. Auto standby: Cypress waits for components to appear automatically, preventing timing problems from causing your tests to fail. Manual timeouts and retries are no longer necessary, thanks to this feature.
  5. Excellent developer experience: Cypress offers a real-time, interactive test runner that makes building and debugging tests simple.

 Create E2E tests using Cypress

After highlighting Cypress’s advantages, let’s now look more closely at how you can utilize this superb testing framework to create E2E tests for your SPA. Discover the fundamental setup and ideal procedures for creating successful E2E tests.

 Get started with Cypress

Installing Cypress as a development dependency in your project is required before you can use it. You can use the test runner to generate and execute tests after Cypress has been installed interactively.

 E2E test creation

 The essential steps for developing E2E tests in Cypress are as follows:

  1. Block by explanation: The “describe” and “it” blocks are used to segment Cypress tests. Use “describe” to group similar tests together and “it” to specify a specific test case.
  2. Go to the next page: Use the cy.visit() command to visit her SPA URL just like the user would.
  3. Relate to the elements: Using commands like cy.get(), you may locate and modify HTML elements. You could mimic keystrokes, clicks, and form submissions, for instance.
  4. Complaints: To determine whether an element contains a specific property or content, use Cypress assertions like “.Should()”. This demonstrates that the app performs as planned.
  5. Custom commands: Cypress enables you to build custom commands that encapsulate typical operations, improving the readability and maintainability of your tests.

Running the test

Cypress Test Runner is a tool you may use to run your tests. This interactive tool makes it simple to find problems because it offers real-time feedback and lets you look back at test runs.

 Advanced test scenarios

Cypress is adaptable and capable of managing a range of complex testing scenarios.

  1. User interaction simulation: You can replicate user events such as button clicks, form fills, and website navigation.
  2. API testing: Cypress is a useful tool for testing both the front and back ends of your SPA because it enables you to make HTTP requests and test API answers.
  3. Edge case testing: Writing tests that cover edge cases and scenarios that your consumers might experience is another option.
  4. Executing tests in parallel: Cypress enables parallel test execution, which can reduce the time it takes to complete a test suite.

Cypress can seamlessly integrate with a variety of cloud-based testing platforms, and one such platform is LambdaTest. LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform designed to streamline both manual and automated testing processes across an impressive array of over 3000 real desktop browsers, devices, and operating system configurations. By harnessing the power of Cypress automation tools within LambdaTest, you gain the ability to execute and meticulously analyze your Cypress test scripts in an online environment. This enables you to run End-to-End tests with lightning speed on the Cypress test execution cloud provided by LambdaTest.

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LambdaTest stands out as a dependable, scalable, secure, and exceptionally high-performing test execution platform that’s engineered to handle substantial workloads. It empowers you to conduct Cypress UI testing on more than 40 different browsers and browser versions, including headless options.

  • You can perform Cypress parallel testing on an assortment of browsers, versions, and operating systems using the cloud-based LambdaTest platform. 
  • This cloud-based browser testing solution allows you to fully automate web testing with Cypress on a comprehensive online browser farm, featuring real browsers and operating systems that promise exceptional speed and efficiency.
  • What further sets LambdaTest apart is its high-scale parallelization, which seamlessly integrates with your CI/CD pipeline for effortless testing automation. 
  • The results of Cypress tests are displayed in real-time through the LambdaTest-Cypress CLI, offering instant feedback. 
  • Once all test cases have been executed, you can conveniently access the Cypress test results on the intuitive LambdaTest Dashboard, where comprehensive information, including screenshots, videos, and logs, is readily available for each test case.

 The Value of Maintenance and Test Coverage

When it comes to E2E testing single-page applications (SPAs), two crucial elements—test coverage and test maintenance—are occasionally neglected. These factors are crucial to ensure that your testing efforts are successful in the long run.

 Test Range: Providing thorough Testing

Test coverage describes how thoroughly E2E tests cover the SPA’s features and functions. A suitable test should be run in addition to a simple test. For a number of reasons, comprehensive test coverage is necessary:

  1. Recognize blind spots: If your application’s testing isn’t thorough enough, certain areas may get overlooked, giving room for problems to go undetected. It is necessary to identify these blind spots so that further testing can fix them.
  2. Edge case: Testing should take into account conceivable user scenarios and edge cases. Thorough testing can aid in finding and fixing mistakes in these uncommon but crucial circumstances.
  3. Browser and device compatibility: To ensure that your SPA functions effectively on various browsers and devices, you require testing considering various situations. This necessitates testing on a variety of gadgets, such as laptops, tablets, and cell phones, as well as well-liked web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Maintaining tests:

 Maintain Test Reliability

E2E test maintenance is a continuous procedure that guarantees test validity and applicability. Your tests must alter to reflect changes to your SPA. Here are some reasons test maintenance is crucial:

  1. Adapt to code updates: If your tests rely on out-of-date selectors or assumptions, updating the codebase of your SPA may lead them to fail. Even if you carry out routine maintenance, your tests will still function with the most recent code.
  2. Maintain consistency: Keeping test code and development practices consistent gets harder as programs get bigger. Maintenance operations maintain consistency in the test architecture and code standards.


Developers and QA engineers can benefit from Cypress, a game-changing JS tool, in the E2E testing of contemporary online apps. It includes powerful capabilities that make creating tests enjoyable and simple. To avoid testing bottlenecks and obstacles, a developer should be aware of the framework’s limits as with any other framework.

If you are prepared to give it a shot and succeed, make sure you have a solid team and tool in place. Good fortune!




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